Events of 1989 leading to the opening of the Berlin Wall:
August 19: 700 East German refugees cross the recently opened border between Hungary and Austria.
October 4: Mass anti-government demonstrations are held in the East German cities of Leipzig, Dresden and East Berlin.
October 7: East Germany celebrates its 40th anniversary, with ceremonies attended by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who urges liberal reforms.
October 18: East German leader Erich Hoenecker is forced to resign from his posts.
October 23: The "Monday Demonstrations" begin in Leipzig, with the slogan "Wir sind das Volk" ("We are the people").
November 4: 500,000 people attend an anti-government demonstration in East Berlin's Alexanderplatz.
November 7 and 8: East German government and Politburo leaders resign.
November 9: During an evening news conference, a government spokesman announces that East German citizens are now free to travel without restriction. Crowds of East Berliners arrive at the Wall and cross into West Berlin.
March 18, 1990: East Germany holds its first democratic and free elections.
October 3, 1990: East and West Germany are reunited as the Federal Republic of Germany.