UK leader pledges to honor promises to Scotland
EDINBURGH, Scotland — The United Kingdom will stay united. Voters in Scotland resoundingly rejected independence in a historic referendum that shook the country to its core.
But No to a break-up doesn't mean a return to the status quo. The referendum led to promises of further powers for each of the four nations in the United Kingdom — a pledge that will change the country forever.
The vote's results announced today prevented a rupture of a 307-year union with England, bringing a huge sigh of relief to Britain's economic and political establishment, including Prime Minister David Cameron, who faced calls for his resignation if Scotland had broken away.
In Thursday's referendum, 55 percent were against independence to 45 percent in favor. There was an unprecedented turnout of just under 85 percent.
"We have chosen unity over division," Alistair Darling, head of the No campaign, said early Friday in Glasgow. "Today is a momentous day for Scotland and the United Kingdom as a whole."
Independence leader Alex Salmond's impassioned plea to launch a new nation fell short, with Scots choosing instead the security of remaining in union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Yet the campaign tapped a wellspring of youth and energy so vibrant that even in concession, his tone was upbeat.
"This has been a triumph for the democratic process and for participation in politics," he said to cheering supporters.
In the initial euphoria after the result, the pound rose to a high of $1.6509. It has since drifted back below $1.64 as traders book profits built up this week as the pound advanced on hopes of a No result. Britain's FTSE 100 index was also one of the best-performing stock markets in Europe, trading 0.7 percent higher on the day.
A visibly relieved Cameron promised to live up to earlier promises to give Scotland new powers on taxes, spending and welfare. He told reporters outside his Downing Street office that the new plans will be agreed upon by November, with draft legislation by January.
But then he took it further. He said change was coming to other parts of the country amid the watershed vote.
"Just as the people of Scotland will have more power over their affairs, so it follows that the people of England, Wales and Northern Ireland must have a bigger say over theirs," Cameron said. "The rights of these voters need to be respected, preserved and enhanced as well."
The vote riveted the world. In Washington, President Barack Obama welcomed Scotland's choice, and congratulated Scots for their "full and energetic exercise of democracy."
"Harry Potter" author J.K. Rowling, who had given 1 million pounds ($1.6 million) to the No campaign, said she followed the returns overnight.
"Been up all night watching Scotland make history," she tweeted. "A huge turnout, a peaceful democratic process: we should be proud."
The No campaign won the capital city, Edinburgh, by a margin of 61 percent to 38 percent and triumphed by 59 percent to 41 percent in Aberdeen, the country's oil center. The Yes campaign won Glasgow, Scotland's biggest city, but it was not enough.
As dawn broke to lead-gray skies over Glasgow, the dream of independence that had seemed so tantalizingly close evaporated in the soft drizzle.
George Square, the rallying point for thousands of Yes supporters in the final days of the campaign, was littered with placards and debris of a campaign in which many had invested more than two years of their lives.
"I had never voted before or got involved with politics in any way but this time I thought my vote would count for something," said truck driver Calum Noble, 25, as his voice cracked with emotion. "I wanted a better country but it's all been for nothing. I don't believe we will get any of the things the London politicians promised."
But popular opinion on a leafy residential street in Edinburgh's west end told a different tale. Young and old sat by their televisions waiting for news in a half dozen homes. Nearly all said they had voted No.
"Just because I'm not out in the street in a kilt screaming how Scottish I am, that doesn't mean I'm not a proud Scot. I am. And a proud Brit. That's the point the Yes side doesn't respect," said Ger Robertson, 47, who chose instead to celebrate Scotland's verdict in his living room with a dram of his favorite single-malt whisky.
Salmond had argued that Scots could go it alone because of its extensive oil reserves and high levels of ingenuity and education. He said Scotland would flourish alone, free of interference from any London-based government.
Many saw it as a "heads versus hearts" campaign, with cautious older Scots concluding that independence would be too risky financially, while younger ones were enamored with the idea of building their own country.
The result saved Cameron from a historic defeat and also helped opposition chief Ed Miliband by keeping his many Labour Party lawmakers in Scotland in place. Labour would have found it much harder to win a national election in 2015 without that support from Scotland.
Former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, a Scot, returned to prominence with a dramatic barnstorming campaign in support of the union in the final days before the referendum vote. Brown argued passionately that Scots could be devoted to Scotland but still proud of their place in the U.K., rejecting the argument that independence was the patriotic choice.
"There is not a cemetery in Europe that does not have Scots, English, Welsh and Irish lined side by side," Brown said before the vote. "We not only won these wars together, we built the peace together. What we have built together by sacrificing and sharing, let no narrow nationalism split asunder."
For his part, Cameron — aware that his Conservative Party is widely loathed in Scotland — begged voters not to use a vote for independence as a way to bash the Tories.
The vote against independence keeps the United Kingdom from losing a substantial part of its territory and oil reserves and prevents it from having to find a new base for its nuclear arsenal, now housed in Scotland. It had also faced a possible loss of influence within international institutions including the 28-nation European Union, NATO and the United Nations.
The decision also means Britain can avoid a prolonged period of financial insecurity that had been predicted by some if Scotland broke away.
"This has been a long, hard fight and both sides have campaigned fiercely," said Norma Austin Hart, a Labour Party member of Edinburgh City Council. "This has not been like a normal election campaign. There have been debates in town halls and school halls and church halls.
"It's been so intense," she said. "But the people of Scotland have decided."